CMOS electrochemical sensing
For studying biological systems, optical microscopy techniques in which photons act as an intermediary between the biological system and the solid-state world remain paramount. Wide-field optical imagers (in the form of CMOS and CCD imagers) allow massively parallel measurement of collected photons.
In this project, we are developing massively parallel electrochemical imaging arrays, which are capable of performing electrochemical analysis on a massively parallel scale with integrated electrodes. We have so far applied these techniques to multiplexed biosensing but are considering other applications in which direct electrochemical sensing provides advantages over optical techniques.
- P. M. Levine, P. Gong, R. Levicky, and K. L. Shepard, "Real-time, multiplexed electrochemical DNA detection using an active complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor biosensor array with integrated sensor electronics," Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2008 (in press), doi:10.1016/j.bios.2008.10.012.
- P. M. Levine, P. Gong, R. Levicky, and K. L. Shepard, "Active CMOS sensor array for electrochemical biomolecular detection," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1859-1871, Aug. 2008.
- P. M. Levine, P. Gong, K. L. Shepard, and R. Levicky, "Active CMOS array for electrochemical sensing of biomolecules," Proc. IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, Sept. 2007, pp. 825-828.