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- Michael Lekas, Sunwoo Lee, Wujoon Cha, James Hone, Member, IEEE, and Kenneth Shepard, Fellow, IEEE Noise Modeling of Graphene Resonant Channel Transistors, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (advanced on-line)
In this paper, we present a compact model for
graphene resonant channel transistors (G-RCTs) that uses
extracted electrical and mechanical parameters to provide an
accurate simulation of dc, RF, noise, and frequency-tuning
characteristics of the device. The model is validated with
measurements on fabricated G-RCTs, which include what we
believe to be the first noise measurements conducted on any
resonant transistor. The noise model, which considers both
electrical and mechanical sources, is used to demonstrate the
fundamental differences in the noise behavior of active and
passive resonator technologies, and to show how optimization of
device parameters can be used to improve the noise performance
- Michael Lekas, Sunwoo Lee, Wujoon Cha, James Hone, and Kenneth Shepard Third-order intermodulation distortion in graphene resonant channel transistors, Applied Physics Letters 106, 073504 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4913462
Third-order intermodulation distortion (IM3) is an important metric for electromechanical
resonators used in radio frequency signal processing applications since it characterizes the
nonlinearity of the device, and the amount of in-band interference it generates when subject to
unwanted, out-of-band signals. In this letter, we measure and model IM3 in a strain-engineered
graphene mechanical resonator operated as a graphene resonant channel transistor (G-RCT). The
device analyzed in this work has a voltage third-order intercept point (VIIP3) of 69.5 dBm V at a
gate-to-source DC bias (Vgs) of 2.5 V, which drops to 52.1 dBm V at Vgs=4.5V when driven with
two out-of-band input tones spaced 5 and 10MHz from the resonant frequency. The decrease in
the VIIP3 with Vgs coincides with an increase in the transmission response (S21) of the device,
illustrating a trade-off between transduction efficiency and linearity. In addition, we find that
conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems theory for IM3 calculation does not accurately
describe our measurement data. To resolve this discrepancy, we develop a model for IM3 in
G-RCTs that takes into account all of the output current terms present in the embedded transistor
structure, as well as an effective Duffing parameter (αeff).
- Matthew L. Johnston, Erik F. Young, Kenneth L. Shepard Whole-blood immunoassay for γH2AX as a radiation biodosimetry assay with minimal sample preparation, J Radiation and Environmental Biophysics (2015); doi: 10.1007/s00411-015-0595-4
The current state of the art in high-throughput minimally invasive radiation biodosimetry involves the collection of samples in the field and analysis at a centralized facility. We have developed a simple biological immunoassay for radiation exposure that could extend this analysis out of the laboratory into the field. Such a forward placed assay would facilitate triage of a potentially exposed population. The phosphorylation and localization of the histone H2AX at double-stranded DNA breaks has already been proven to be an adequate surrogate assay for reporting DNA damage proportional to radiation dose. Here, we develop an assay for phosphorylated H2AX directed against minimally processed sample lysates. We conduct preliminary verification of H2AX phosphorylation using irradiated mouse embryo fibroblast cultures. Additional dosimetry is performed using human blood samples irradiated ex vivo. The assay reports H2AX phosphorylation in human blood samples in response to ionizing radiation over a range of 0–5 Gy in a linear fashion, without requiring filtering, enrichment, or purification of the blood sample.
- Kevin J. Emmett, Jacob K. Rosenstein, Jan-Willem van de Meent, Ken L. Shepard, Chris H. Wiggins Statistical Inference for Nanopore Sequencing with a Biased Random Walk Model
, Biophysical Journal Volume 108, Issue 8, p1852–1855, 21 April 2015
Nanopore sequencing promises long read-lengths and single-molecule resolution, but the stochastic motion of the DNA molecule inside the pore is, as of this writing, a barrier to high accuracy reads. We develop a method of statistical inference that explicitly accounts for this error, and demonstrate that high accuracy (>99%) sequence inference is feasible even under highly diffusive motion by using a hidden Markov model to jointly analyze multiple stochastic reads. Using this model, we place bounds on achievable inference accuracy under a range of experimental parameters.
- Kevin Tien, Noah Sturcken, Naigang Wang, Jae-woong Nah, Bing Dang, Eugene O’Sullivan, Paul Andry, Michele Petracca, Luca P. Carloni, William Gallagher, Kenneth Shepard "An 82%-Efficient Multiphase Voltage-Regulator 3D Interposer with On-Chip Magnetic Inductors," VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers, 2015 Symposium on, vol., no., pp.1,2, 16-19 June 2015.
This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) fully integrated high-speed multiphase voltage regulator. A complete switched-inductor regulator is integrated with a four-plane NoC in a two-high chip stack combining integrated magnetics, through-silicon vias (TSVs), and 45-nm SOI CMOS devices. Quasi-V2 hysteretic control is implemented over eight injection-locked fixed-frequency phases to achieve fast response, steady-state regulation, and fixed switching frequency. Peak efficiency of 82% for conversion from 1.66 V to 0.83 V is observed at a 150 MHz per-phase switching frequency. This is the first demonstration of high-speed voltage regulation using on-chip magnetic-core inductors in a 3D stack and achieves sub-μs dynamic supply voltage scaling for high-density embedded processing applications.
- Jaebin Choi, Eyal Aklimi, Chen Shi, David Tsai, Harish Krishnaswamy, Member, IEEE, and Kenneth L. Shepard, Fellow, IEEE "Matching the Power, Voltage, and Size of Biological Systems: A nW-Scale, 0.023-mm3 Pulsed 33-GHz Radio Transmitter Operating From a 5 kT/q-Supply Voltage," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems Vol. 62, No. 8. August 2015
This paper explores the extent to which a solid-state transmitter can be miniaturized, while still using RF for wireless information transfer and working with power densities and operating voltages comparable to what could be harvested from a living system. A 3.1 nJ/bit pulsed millimeter-wave transmitter, 300µm by 300µm by 250µm in size, designed in 32-nm SOI CMOS, operates on an electric potential of 130 mV and 3.1 nW of dc power. Farfield data transmission at 33 GHz is achieved by supply-switching an LC-oscillator with a duty cycle of 10-6. The time interval between pulses carries information on the amount of power harvested by the radio, supporting a data rate of 1 bps. The inductor of the oscillator also acts as an electrically small (λ/30) on-chip antenna, which, combined with millimeter-wave operation, enables the extremely small form factor.
- D Tsai, E John, T Chari, R Yuste, K L Shepard, "High–channel–count, high–density micro- electrode array for closed–loop investigation of neuronal networks," Proceedings of the 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, 2015
- Noah Sturcken, Ryan Davies, Hao Wu, Michael Lekas, Maurizio Arienzo, Kenneth Shepard, K.W. Cheng, C.C. Chen, Y.S. Su, C.Y. Tsai, K.D. Wu, J.Y. Wu, Y.C. Wang, K.C. Liu, C.C. Hsu, C.L. Chang, W.C. Hua, Alex Kalnitsky, "Magnetic Thin-Film Inductors for Monolithic Integration with CMOS," Proceedings of the International Electron Device Meeting 2015